I might have already mentioned this in another topic, but I use the Pomodoro Technique to keep track of time and make sure I don't forget about the rest of the world while immersed in a translation I've set a 50 min work timer because the standard 25 minutes didn't work for me (at 25 mins I've just begun to be seriously focused so any timer ringing would ruin it for me) and then a 10 min break during which I get up from my desk and/or check emails.
To handle emails during intense workflow, I prioritise them: I quickly check them and decide which ones require an immediate answer and which ones can wait. The latter I switch back to Unread so I remember to get back to them. In case of urgent emails that require a long answer, at first, I reply to say I've received the email and will reply as soon as possible, and then get back to it later.
Certain email clients such as Outlook also offer the chance to categorize and mark emails ( I have lists of emails by category) or to create memos and alerts. If you need to remember to check an email by a certain time or date, you can assign an alert to it.
As to the backup system, I have copies of files on another drive. They're organized in a year - month - project folder sequence.